Category New developments in renewable energy

Global warming and environmental policy in Turkey

Developing countries, while varying in size and population, political system, economic structure, bear many similarities. They are facing less favourable economic circumstances, worsening environmental degradation and challenges in curbing climate changes. The present paper [1] only focuses on the issues of contradictory objectives, unrealistic standards and limited public participation.

Policy makers in developing countries are well aware of the importance of environmental protection. However, more often than not, they are placed in a dilemma when left to balance between economic growth and environment. Conflicts often rise between social, environmen­tal and economic objectives [1,23]. The headlong pursuit of economic growth is the cornerstone of developing countries...

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Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions policies in Turkey

Turkey was a member of the OECD when the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Changes (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992, and was therefore included among the so- called Annex I and Annex П countries. Under the convention, Annex I countries have to take steps to reduce emissions and Annex II countries have to take steps to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries. However, in comparison to other countries included in these annexes, Turkey was at a relatively early stage of industrialization and had a lower level of economic development as well as a lower means to assist developing countries. Turkey was not given a quantified emissions reduction or limitation objective in the Kyoto Protocol...

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Climate change, energy and emission profile in Turkey

Turkey’s total carbon dioxide (C02) emissions amounted to 239 million tons (Mt) in 2006 (Tables 1-3). Emissions grew by 5% compared to 2001 levels and by just over 50% compared to 1990

levels. Oil has historically been the most important source of emissions, followed by coal and gas. Oil represented 45% of total emissions in 2004, while coal represented 40% and gas 15%. The contribution of each fuel has however changed significantly owing to the increasingly impor­tant role of gas in the country’s fuel mix starting from the mid-1980s [3,11,12].







CO2 sectoral approach (Mt of CO2)







CO2 reference approach (Mt of CO2)







Total Primary ...

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Present Situation and Future Prospect of Energy Utilization and Climate Change in Turkey

ibrahim YQksel, Kamil Kaygusuz and Hasan Arman

Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx. doi. org/10.5772/54319

1. Introduction

Sustainable development has emerged as the key challenge for the 21st Century. The Johan­nesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted both the opportuni­ties and the lack of progress since the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, a decade previously. Decision-makers are looking to sustainable development to provide practical approaches that could address traditional issues as well as the newer challenges. Although no universally accepted practical definition of sustainable development exists as yet, the concept has evolved to integrate economic, social and environmental aims [1,2]...

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New developments in renewable energy

Unlike to fossil energy sources, renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind are existed in widespread geographical areas of the world and provide important opportunities for energy efficiency. Higher growth rate in production of renewable energy and technologi­cal diversification of energy sources will contribute a significant energy security and sub­stantial economic benefits to many nations. Consequently, in developing countries, projects related to renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation via providing the energy needed for setting up businesses and employment. Also, renewable energy technolo­gies can make indirect assistances to poverty alleviation by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting...

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