Looking forward

The future state of the electricity industry always differs from the scenarios ana­lyzed in large-scale integration studies. Given this fact, studies should focus more on quantifying the relative effect of particular changes in operating policy or technologies than on seeking to precisely quantify the economic or reliability effect of a particular penetration scenario. For example, […]

Analysis of transmission system investments

Several of the studies suggested the need for substantial transmission expansion in order to facilitate high-renewables-penetration scenarios. While some transmis­sion expansion is certainly warranted, large-scale expansion of the bulk trans­mission network is costly and will face substantial siting barriers. Thus there is, in our opinion, a need for creative thinking about how to most effectively […]

Statistical modeling and balancing reserves

Almost all of the studies in this review used net load step-change statistics to esti­mate the need for additional balancing (regulation and load-following) reserves. Most of the studies implicitly or explicitly assumed that load and wind are uncor­related and that the data fit Gaussian statistical models, neither of which is accurate. Methods such as the […]

Suggested system changes and operating practices

The effect of wind integration depends heavily on the system in which it is being integrated. These studies made numerous recommendations that could reduce the cost of wind integration. First, several of the studies concluded that larger balancing authority areas were better suited to managing wind variability than smaller balancing authorities (Charles River Associates, 2010; […]

Wind forecast accuracy

Improved wind forecasting techniques also mitigate the difficulty of incorporating wind into the power system (see Chapter 9). Several studies provided estimates of the benefits of perfect wind forecast relative to state-of-the-art wind forecast and found significant operational improvements with improved forecasting (EnerNex Corporation, 2011; GE Energy, 2005a, 2010). EWITS determined that perfect, day – […]