# Category Tanker Transportation

## PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS FUELS

Properties of Typical Gaseous Fuels2

Calorific value

 Type of gas Btu/ft3 kcal/m3 Gross Net Gross Net Acetylene, commercial 1410 1360 12,548 12,105 Blast furnace 92 91 819 819 Blue (water), bituminous 260 239 2314 2127 Butane, commercial, natural gas 3210 2961 28,566 26,350 Butane, commercial, refinery gas 3184 2935 28,334 26,119 Carbureted blue, low gravity 536 461 4770 4102 Carbureted blue, heavy oil 530 451 4716 4013 Coke oven, by-product 569 509 5064 4530 Mapp 2406 2282 21,411 20,308 Natural, Alaska 998 906 8879 8063 Natural, Algerian LNG, Canvey 1122 1014 9985 9024 Natural, Gaz de Lacq 1011 911 8997 8107 Natural, Groning...

## Factor for Converting Motor Vehicle Efficiency

The efficiency of motor vehicles in the United States is commonly expressed in miles per U. S. gallon, while in most other countries it is expressed in liters per one hundred kilometers. To convert fuel economy stated in miles per U. S. gallon to fuel consumption expressed in L/(100 km), divide 235.215 by the numerical value of the stated fuel economy. Thus 24 miles per gallon corresponds to 9.8L/(100km).

4.4 U. S. Survey Foot and Mile

The U. S. Metric Law of 1866 gave the relationship 1m = 39.37 in (‘‘in’’ is the unit symbol for the inch). From 1893 until 1959, the yard was defined as being exactly equal to (3600/3937) m, and thus the foot was defined as being exactly equal to (1200/3937) m.

In 1959 the definition of the yard was changed to bring the U. S...

## CONVERSION FACTORS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

Source: U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology

2.1 Introduction

Section 4.6 gives factors for converting values of quantities expressed in various units—predominantly units outside the SI that are unacceptable for use with it—to values expressed either in (a) SI units, (b) units that are accepted for use with the SI (especially units that better reflect the nature of the unconverted units), (c) units formed from such accepted units and SI units, or (d) decimal multiples or submultiples of the units of (a) to (c) that yield numerical values of convenient magnitudes.

2.2 Notation

The factors given in Section 4.6 are written as a number equal to or greater than 1 and less than 10, with 6 or fewer decimal places...

## COMMON SYMBOLS AND UNITS

Greek alphabet

 A a alpha і 1 iota p q rho B b beta K К kappa R r 1 sigma Г c gamma Л k lambda T s tau D 5 S delta M i mu Y t upsilon E £ epsilon N V nu U / u phi Z f zeta N n xi X v chi H g eta O o omicron W w psi © e » theta П p pi X x omega
 International system of unit prefixes Prefix Symbol Multiple exa (E) 1018 (quintillions) peta (P) 1015 (quadrillions) tera (T) 1012 (trillions) giga (G) 109 (billions) mega (M) 106 (millions) kilo (k) 103 (thousands) hecto (h) 102 (hundreds) deka (da) 101 (tens) deci (d) 10-1 (tenths) centi

## A Brief History of the International System of Units

The creation of the decimal metric system at the time of the French Revolution and the subsequent deposi­tion of two platinum standards representing the meter and the kilogram, on June 22, 1799, in the Archives de la Ripublique in Paris can be seen as the first step in the development of the present International System of Units.

In 1832, Gauss strongly promoted the application of this metric system, together with the second defined in astronomy, as a coherent system of units for the physical sciences. Gauss was the first to make absolute measurements of the earth’s magnetic force in terms of a decimal system based on the three mechanical units millimeter, gram, and second for the quantities length, mass, and time, respectively...

## Definitions of the SI Base Units and the Radian and Steradian

Meter The meter is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

Kilogram The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.

Second The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom.

Ampere The ampere is that constant current that, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10~7 newton per meter of length.

Kelvin The kelvin, a unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273...

## Units Temporarily Accepted for Use with the SI

Because of existing practice in certain fields or countries, in 1978 the CIPM considered that it was permissible for the units given in Table 7 to continue to be used with the SI until the CIPM considers that their use is no longer necessary.

TABLE 7

Units Temporarily Accepted for Use with the SI

 Name2 Symbol Value in SI units nautical mile – 1 nautical mile = 1852 m knot – 1 nautical mile per hour = (1852/3600) m/s angstrom A 1A = 0.1 nm = 10~10m are a 1a — 1 dam2 — 102m2 hectare"2 ha 1 ha — 1 hm2 — 104m2 barn b сг il о о в1 il о 1 00 bar bar 1 bar — 0.1 Mpa — 100 kPa — 1000 hPa — 105 Pa gal Gal 1 Gal — 1 cm/s2 — 10_2 m/s2 curie Ci 1Ci — 3.7 x 1010Bq roentgen R 1R — 2...

## SELECTED ENERGY-RELATED TABLES

1. GUIDE TO THE USE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

Source: U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology

The International System of Units was established in 1960 by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM). Universally abbreviated SI (from the French Le Systeme International d’Unites), it is the modern metric system of measurement used throughout the world.

SI units are currently divided into three classes:

• base units

• derived units

• supplementary units

which together form what is called ‘‘the coherent system of SI units.’’ The SI also includes prefixes to form decimal multiples and submultiples of SI units.

1.1 SI Units

1.1.1 SI Base Units

Table 1 gives the seven base quantities, assumed to be mutually independent, on which the SI is fou...