Category Tanker Transportation

HALF-LIFE OF SELECTED RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES

Radionuclide

Symbol

Half-life

Americium-241

241Am

432.2 years

Americium-243

243Am

7.38 x 103 years

Antimony-125

125Sb

2.77 years

Argon-41

41Ar

1.827 hours

Beryllium-7

7Be

53.44 days

Californium-252

252Cf

2.639 years

Carbon-14

14C

5.730 x 103 years

Cerium-141

141Ce

32.50 days

Cerium-143

143Ce

1.38 days

Cerium-144

144Ce

284.3 days

Cesium-134

134Cs

2.062 years

Radionuclide

Symbol

Half-life

Cesium-137

137Cs

30.17 years

Cobalt-58

00

о

О

70.80 days

Cobalt-60

о

О

О

5.271 years

Curium-242

242Cm

163.2 days

Curium-244

244Cm

18.11 years

Iodine-129

129i

157 x 107 years

Iodine-131

131i

8.04 days

Krypton-85

85Kr

10.72 years

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ENERGY CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS

Food

Kcal/100g

Fruits

Apples

52

Apricots

48

Bananas

89

Figs

74

Grapefruit

32

Guavas

51

Mangos

65

Melons, cantaloupe

34

Oranges

47

Strawberries, raw

32

Tomatoes, red

18

Vegetables

Asparagus, raw

20

Broccoli, cooked

35

Carrots, raw

41

Chickpeas, cooked

164

Corn, sweet, yellow, raw

86

Cucumber, peeled, raw

12

Lentils, cooked

101

Lettuce, romaine, raw

17

Mushrooms, raw

22

Onions, raw

42

Peas, edible-podded, raw

42

Peppers, sweet, red, raw

26

Pickles, cucumber, dill

18

Potato, flesh and skin, raw

77

Potatoes, russet, raw

79

Food

Kcal/100g

Meats and proteins

Beans, black, cooked

132

Beans, navy

67

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ENERGY COST OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Activity

METSa

Description

Bicycling

8

Bicycling, general

Bicycling

10

Bicycling, 14-15.9 mph, racing or leisure, fast, vigorous effort

Bicycling

16

Bicycling, > 20 mph, racing, not drafting

Conditioning exercise

7

Bicycling, stationary, general

Conditioning exercise

7

Bicycling, stationary, 150 watts, moderate effort

Conditioning exercise

12.5

Bicycling, stationary, 250 watts, very vigorous effort

Table continued

Activity

METSa

Description

Conditioning exercise

8

Calisthenics, heavy, vigorous effort

Conditioning exercise

8

Circuit training

Conditioning exercise

6

Weight lifting

Conditioning exercise

5.5

Health club exercise, general

Conditioning exercise

9

Stair-treadmill ergo...

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ENERGY USE OF TYPICAL HOME APPLIANCES

Appliance

Wattage

Aquarium

50-1210

Clock radio

10

Coffee maker

900-1200

Clothes washer

350-500

Clothes dryer

1800-5000

Dishwashera

1200-2400

Dehumidifier

785

Electric blanket, single

60

Appliance

Wattage

Electric blanket, double

100

Fans

Ceiling

65-175

Window

55-250

Furnace

750

Whole house

240-750

Hair dryer

1200-1875

Heater (portable)

750-1500

Iron (clothes iron)

1000-1800

Microwave oven

750-1100

Personal computer

CPU

120

CPU, sleep mode

30 or less

Monitor

150

Monitor, sleep mode

30 or less

Laptop

50

Radio (stereo)

70-400

Refrigerator (frost-free)

725

Television set (color)

19-inch

65-110

27-inch

113

3...

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COMPARATIVE LEVELS OF GREENHOUSE GASES

Pre-industrial (1750) and Present (1998) Abundances of Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases and the Radiative Forcing due to the Change in

Abundance

Gas

Abundance (1750)

Abundance (1998)

Radiative forcing (Wm 2)

Gases relevant to radiative forcing only

0

0

278

365

1.46

CH4

700

1745

0.48

N2O

270

314

0.15

cf4

40

80

0.003

C2F6

0

3

0.001

SF6

0

4.2

0.002

HFC-23

0

14

0.002

HFC-134a

0

7.5

0.001

HFC-152a

0

0.5

0.000

Gases relevant to radiative forcing and

ozone depletion

CFC-11

0

268

0.07

CFC-12

0

533

0.17

CFC-13

0

4

0.001

CFC-113

0

84

0.03

CFC-114

0

15

0.005

CFC-115

0

7

0.001

CCl4

0

102

0...

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WORLD HYDROPOWER RESOURCES

Hydropower: Capability at End-1999 (TWh/year)

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Algeria

12

5

Angola

150

90

65

Benin

2

1

Burkina Faso

1

N

N

Burundi

>6

>1

1

Cameroon

294

115

103

Central African Republic

7

3

Chad

N

N

Comoros

Congo (Brazzaville)

>125

> 50

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Congo (Democratic Rep.)

1397

774

<419

Cote d’Ivoire

46

>12

12

Egypt (Arab Rep.)

>125

> 50

50

Equatorial Guinea

Ethiopia

650

> 260

260

Gabon

200

80

33

Ghana

17

11

7

Guinea

26

19

15

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WORLD CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS RESERVES (JANUARY 1, 2002)

Crude oil (billion

barrels)

Natural gas (trillion

cubic feet)

Region

Country

Oil and gas journal

World oil

Oil and gas journal

World oil

North America

Canada

4.9

5.4

59.7

59.7

Mexico

26.9

23.1

29.5

39.0

United States’2

22.4

22.4

183.5

183.5

Total

54.2

50.9

272.7

282.1

Central and South America

Argentina

3.0

2.9

27.5

26.8

Barbados

(s)

NA

(s)

NA

Bolivia

0.4

0.5

24.0

27.4

Brazil

8.5

8.6

7.8

7.9

Chile

0.2

(s)

3.5

1.3

Colombia

1.8

1.9

4.3

5.0

Cuba

0.8

0.3

2.5

0.5

Table continued

Crude oil (billion

barrels)

Natural gas (trillion

cubic feet)

Region

Country

Oil and gas journal

World oil

Oil and gas journal

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APPROXIMATE HEAT CONTENT OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Energy source

Heat content (million Btu/barrel)

Asphalt

6.636

Aviation gasoline

5.048

Butane

4.326

Butane-propane mixture (60%^0%)

4.130

Distillate fuel oil

5.825

Ethane

3.082

Ethane-propane mixture (70%-30%)

3.308

Isobutane

3.974

Jet fuel, kerosene-type

5.670

Jet fuel, naphtha-type

5.355

Kerosene

5.670

Lubricants

6.065

Motor gasoline

Conventional

5.253

Oxygenated

5.150

Reformulated

5.150

Fuel ethanola

3.539

Natural gasoline

4.620

Pentanes plus

4.620

Подпись: Table continued Energy source Heat content (million Btu/barrel) Petrochemical feedstocks Naphtha less than 401 °F 5.248 Other oils equal to or greater than 401°F 5.825 Still gas 6.000 Petroleum coke 6.024 Plant condensate 5.418 Propane 3.836 Residual fuel oil 6.287 Road oil 6.636 Special naphthas 5.248 Still gas 6.000 Unfinished oils 5.825 Unfractionated stream 5.418 Waxes 5.537 Miscellaneous 5.796

Source. U. S. Department of Energy.

Подпись: TYPICAL ENERGY CONTENT OF FOSSIL AND BIOMASS FUELS

aFuel ethanol, which is derived from agricultural feedstocks (primarily corn), is not a petroleum product but is blended into motor gasoline. Its gross heat content (3...

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