Category Ecological Footprints and Energy

Agribusiness Applications

Подпись: Natural FIGURE 4 Oregon Institute of Technology heating and cooling system.

Agribusiness applications (agriculture and aquacul­ture) are particularly attractive because they require

Agribusiness Applications

marketable crops have been raised in geothermally heated greenhouses in Tunisia, Hungary, Russia, New Zealand, Japan, Iceland, China, and the United States. These include vegetables such as cucumbers and tomatoes, flowers (both potted and bedded), house plants, tree seed­lings, and cacti. Using geothermal energy for heating reduces operating costs (which can account for 35% of the product cost) and allows operation in colder climates where commercial greenhouses would not normally be economical.

The use of geothermal energy for raising catfish, shrimp, tilapia, eels, and tropical fish has produced crops faster than by conventional solar heating...

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Space Conditioning

Space conditioning includes both heating and cool­ing. Space heating with geothermal energy has widespread application, especially on an individual basis. Buildings heated from individual wells are popular in Klamath Falls, Oregon; Reno, Nevada; and Taupo and Rotorua, New Zealand. Absorption space cooling with geothermal energy has not been popular because of the high temperature require­ments and low efficiency. Geothermal heat pumps (groundwater and ground coupled) have become popular in the United States, Sweden, and Switzer­land for both heating and cooling.

An example of the use of space heating and cooling with low – to moderate-temperature geothermal en­ergy is the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon (Fig. 4)...

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Swimming, Bathing, and Balneology

Romans, Chinese, Ottomans, Japanese, and central Europeans have bathed in geothermal waters for centuries. Today, more than 2200 hot springs resorts in Japan draw 100 million guests every year, and the “return-to-nature’’ movement in the United States has revitalized many hot spring resorts.

The geothermal water at Xiaotangshan Sanitar­ium, northwest of Beijing, has been used for medical purposes for more than 500 years. Today, the 50°C water is used to treat high blood pressure, rheuma­tism, skin disease, diseases of the nervous system, ulcers, and generally for recuperation after surgery. In Rotorua, New Zealand, at the center of the Taupo Volcanic Zone of North Island, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital was built during World War II for U. S...

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Geothermal Direct Use


Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology Klamath Falls, Oregon, United States

1. Utilization

2. Equipment

3. Economic Considerations

4. Future Developments


agribusiness application Agriculture and aquaculture de­velopments; in this article, it includes the heating of the various applications, such as greenhouses and fish ponds. aquaculture pond/raceway heating Heat energy provided to ponds and raceway in order to optimize the growing of fish, shrimp, alligators, or other aquatic species. balneology The use of mineral waters for therapeutic purposes.

direct use The use of the heat energy rather than its conversion to other forms such as electricity; for example, a furnace used for space heating...

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OPEC’s ability to raise prices in the short run to levels that may be damaging to the economies of major consuming countries poses a major policy challenge to the governments of consuming coun­tries. Rising oil prices threaten consumer country national interest in several ways. Oil price volatility can inhibit investment, inhibit economic growth, and spur inflation in major economies that purchase consumer country exports.

The burden of rising energy import costs also threatens social stability in key regional consuming countries such as India and Pakistan and the South­east Asia region. Moreover, supply constraints also make it easier for governments or subnational groups to threaten vital interests of the United States, Japan, and their allies.

Thus, consuming countries have a clear ...

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As discussed previously, the United States is a major buyer of imported crude oil, and its imports represent a large share of the market for internation­ally ‘‘traded’’ oil. Given the large scale of U. S. purchases, incremental U. S. acquisitions of oil affect the overall international market price of oil. Stated another way, the cost of each marginal barrel is higher than the price paid for that barrel given that this additional purchase affects the costs of all oil consumed. From the perspective of the United States, this constitutes an externality in the sense that consumers will base their decisions regarding the quantity of oil (and oil products) purchased on the average, rather than the marginal, cost of oil...

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Over the past few years, there has been a dramatic shift in the internal politics of OPEC, reflecting changes of political leadership at the highest levels and of broader policies of key members. The result has been greater cohesion inside the producer group and a clearer articulation and implementation of goals and aspirations.

The mid-1990s were characterized by OPEC disunity and overproduction, so much so that the cartel members themselves were questioning the future viability of the organization. Venezuela’s ambitious campaign to increase oil productive capacity from 2...

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more gradually, to 5.5 million barrels/day by 2006. However, prolonged political strife inside the country and a major oil workers strike in 2003 not only discouraged further investment by foreign companies (which were already discouraged by rising tax rates) but also left much of Venezuela’s oil industry infrastructure damaged, lowering its potential to produce and refine crude oil. Venezuela’s oil produc­tion capacity was already dropping during recent years given constraints on investment capital and a tough geological decline curve at aging fields, but damage sustained during the oil workers strike and near civil war in the country led to a more rapid reduction in sustainable capacity to 2.2 million barrels/day at the end of 2003, down from a peak of 3.7 million barrels/day in 1998...

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