Category: Acid Deposition and Energy Use

Effects of Aerosols

Aerosols occur in the atmosphere from natural causes; for instance, they are blown off the surface of deserts or dry regions. As a result of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991, considerable amounts of aerosol were added to the stratosphere that, for approximately 2 years, scat­tered solar radiation leading to […]


The different components of the climate system contribute on different timescales to climate varia­tions and change. The atmosphere and oceans are fluid systems and can move heat through convection and advection in which the heat is carried by the currents, whether small-scale short-lived eddies or large-scale atmospheric jet streams or ocean currents. Changes in phase […]


Major ice sheets, such as those over Antarctica and Greenland, have a large heat capacity but, like land, the penetration of heat occurs primarily through conduction so that the mass involved in changes from year to year is small. Temperature profiles can be taken directly from bore holes into ice and it is estimated that […]


The heat penetration into land is limited and slow, as it occurs mainly through conduction, except where water plays a role. Temperature profiles taken from bore holes into land or ice caps provide a coarse estimate of temperatures in years long past. Conse­quently, surface air temperature changes over land occur much faster and are much […]