Category Solar Heating Systems for Houses


Where relevant, the source document for the definition is indicated in brackets.

auxiliary energy consumption, combined see combined auxiliary energy consumption

auxiliary heat source source of heat, other than solar, used to supplement the output provided by the solar heating system (ISO 9488:1999); in French, energie d’appoint; in German, Zusatzenergie auxiliary, long-running-time see long-running-time auxiliary

boiler a complete unit with burner, combustion chamber and exhaust-gas/water heat exchanger; in French, chandiere; in German, Heizkessel

burner the burner, with or without a combustion chamber, but not including the exhaust-gas/water heat exchanger

cell, photovoltaic see photovoltaic cell collector, solar (thermal) see solar (thermal) collector combined auxiliary energy consumpti...

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Jean-Marc Suter, Ulrike Jordan and Dagmar Jaehnig

This vocabulary lists a number of terms used in this handbook, with their definition, symbol, physical units and comments. These terms were selected according to the following criteria:

• some of the terms are not commonly used

• other terms are common but their precise interpretation is less generally known or different from author to author, hence clarification was required

• finally, a third group of terms may be misleading for non-native English readers, because similar terms have a different meaning in foreign languages.

The first subsection of this vocabulary includes the selected terms and definitions. The second subsection gives a list of symbols and abbreviations used throughout the handbook...

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Reference library

Compiled by Peter Kovdcs

Within IEA SH&C Task 26 a comparatively large number of experts in this field have been working together. The amount of accumulated knowledge is extensive and the essence of it has been made available in this handbook. Nevertheless, there are huge amounts of background material available to those interested, some of it surely adding information of interest concerning the outcome of Task 26. The researchers of Task 26 have accumulated a list of references that may be of interest when studying solar combisystems, and these are given below.






Year of publication



Solare Raumheizungsanlagen


AEE INTEC, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Erneuerbare Energie, Ins...

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Подпись: Figure 10.5. The Solar Keymark logo

The standards for collectors and factory-made systems EN 12975-1 &2 and EN 12976-1&2, as described in Sections 10.2.1 and 10.3 respectively, will serve as the basis for a European certificate for solar thermal products. At the time of publication, the European Solar Industry Federation ESTIF and 13 test institutions representing 11 European countries are working together to establish the so-called Solar Keymark (see Figure 10.5). The Solar Keymark certifies conformity of solar collectors and factory-made solar domestic hot water systems with the European standards (Nielsen, 2001).

The Solar Keymark is one of several Keymarks that make up the official CEN/CENELEC European Certification Mark System for demonstrating compliance of products with European standards (CEN/CENELEC, 2001)...

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The DC and the CCT methods

The DC (Direct Characterization) test method offers a second way of characterizing solar combisystems, especially factory-made systems. DC tests are carried out at an indoor test facility. Solar input is generated by means of a solar simulator and the actual collector or by a heater simulating the solar collector. In the latter case, collector parameters determined according to EN 12975—2 should be available. The space heating load is emulated following specified climate conditions and is based on a specific low-temperature heat distribution system. The core phase of the test method consists of six days, with two days simulating winter, two days summer and two days spring/autumn...

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The CTSS method

For determination of the thermal performance of small custom-built systems according to ENV 12977-2, the CTSS (Component Testing – System Simulation) method has to be used. The CTSS method is based on separate tests of the most important components (see Figure 10.3). The test for the collector is carried out according to EN 12975—2. The store is tested according to ENV 12977—3. The controller is checked according to ENV 12977-2, Annex B. Based on the parameters determined for the different components, the thermal performance of the complete system is predicted by using a component-based system simulation program such as TRNSYS.


The application range of the CTSS method is very flexible because of its component-oriented approach...

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The DST method

The DST method can be applied for solar domestic hot water systems with

and without auxiliary heating. It is therefore the most relevant test method for ‘typical’ factory-made solar heating systems used in northern and central Europe. The aim of the DST test is to determine a set of parameters, giving a detailed description of the thermal system behaviour in combination with a numerical system model. These parameters are determined by means of parameter identification using measurements recorded during operation of the system at a test facility. Annual performance of the system can be predicted by using the numerical system model and the parameters determined from the system test.

The DST test method is standardized in ISO/DIS 9459—5 (a formal ISO/CEN joint procedure, aiming at publish...

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The CSTG test method

The CSTG test method is based on a simple ‘input/output’ correlation and can only be applied for solar domestic hot water systems without auxiliary heating devices in the store. This method is standardized in ISO 9459-2. Since solar heating systems of this type are rare in northern and central Europe, the CSTG test procedure is predominantly applied in test laboratories in South Europe.

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