The results from computer building simulations, of various shading profiles caused by unexpected occupant intervention with the solar aperture, other than the one specified for the “Zero Energy House”, are analysed and assessed having as basis the optimum fenestration shading strategy for winter as defined below.
a) Optimised Fenestration Shading Strategy for Winter
The optimized fenestration strategy for winter from the previous research study “Shading”  is outlined as having all glazed area unshaded during the day time to obtain maximum solar gains and achieve comfort indoor conditions in the range of 18.6 – 20.6 degrees Centigrade (Table 1, 1.0).
b) North Window Shutters Shaded
If North window shutters (Area=3...Read More
The performance results show that amorphous silicon modules installed in the park have an average performance ratio of 0.76 and the multicrystalline modules installed in the facade have a value of 0.84, due mainly to lower average irradiance values leading also to lower average working temperatures.
Table 7. Yearly performance ratio averages in the PV Facade and PV Park systems.
The annual heating energy demand of the Passivhaus proposed for Portugal has been estimated as 16.9 kWh/m2, of which 11 kWh/m2 are supplied by the solar system (in this analysis priority of the solar system is given to heating and the solar fraction for domestic hot water is 48%). The annual cooling energy demand is 3.7 kWh/m2. The sum of net heating and cooling demand is
9.6 kWh/m2/yr. According to the thermal regulation, the limits of heating and cooling for this house built in Lisbon are 73.5 and 32 kWh/m2/yr, respectively. See fig. 2.
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
The analysis of the thermal comfort is based on the resultant (or operative) temperature, which is the average between air and radiant temperature...Read More
Operating Agent for IEA SHC Task 37
KanEnergi AS, Hoffsveien 13, 0275 Oslo, Norway
This paper gives an overview presentation of the IEA SHC task 37 “Advanced Housing Renovation by Solar & Conservation”. The task is organized under the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) and includes more than 40 experts from 12 countries. The task started in 2006 and will end in December 2009.
The objective of this Task is to develop a solid knowledge base how to renovate housing to a very high energy standard while providing superior comfort and sustainability. The task will also develop strategies which support market penetration of such renovations explicitly directed towards market segments with high renovation and multipliable potentials...Read More
Inst. of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Heating Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 21/25, Warsaw, Poland
Nowadays, attic apartments with inclined external walls and windows (roof) surfaces have become quite “fashionable” in buildings erected in highly densely populated cities. The influence of solar energy and in consequence energy transfer through windows on the energy balance of such rooms is evident. Calculations of solar radiation incident on building surfaces, including attic envelope have been performed...Read More
A similar analysis was performed for both building sectors in a typical summer day. In the simulations, the openings added in the Health sector were considered closed, and the air chamber added in the Development sector was ventilated to avoid overheating. The thermal behaviour of the Health sector in summer (Figure 8) shows that, during the sunshine hours, the indoor air temperatures are around 30 °С with an average outdoor temperature of 22.9 °С. Only during the night the building enters inside the comfort zone. In the Development sector the mean air temperature is around 26 °С (Figure 9) with a mean outdoor temperature of 22.9°C..
Fig. 8. Summer hourly temperature in the Health Sector: (a) North thermal zones, and (b) South thermal
In this sector, the indoor ...Read More
The assignment of this project was to design an autonomous PV system for beach cabins. The main criterion for the design was ease of use and ease of transport, since beach cabins are installed and de-installed once a year. The final design consists of different modules. Each module has a different function, ranging from battery, to charge regulator, to radio. A consumer can thus compose his/her own PV solar energy system. The connected Solar Blox form one console with a straightforward user interface in the cabin, instead of a collection of loose components. The use of modules facilitates transport of the system and installation of the system...Read More
General statements regarding the economy of solar plants are very difficult to make as the reference cost of electricity varies by a factor of 5 worldwide and the efficiency of electrical cooling machines also varies. Solar radiation varies by a factor of approx. 2 between the various Locations we have measured, and additional use of the energy from the solar plant for heating and hot water purposes has to be individually assessed for each project. Grant assistance available for such projects also varies considerably.
However, it can be assumed that most of the projects will achieve a payback period of 5-15 years based on current energy prices. It is important to note that there is a minimum size for solar cooling
plants to be economic...Read More